Editor’s Note: Upcoming Exhibitions and Thanks


8945495c-0e81-479e-978e-fc353021c3aaThis spring I ran across an issue of a Norwegian publication about local history, Lokalhistorisk Magazine. They had a whole issue devoted to art and handcraft, “Kunst og husflid.” I felt like I found gold; the issue includes several interesting articles on textiles.  I contacted the publisher, and editor Audhild Brødreskift was very gracious about allowing us to publish translations of the articles in The Norwegian Textile Letter. Thank you, Audhild. The first appears in this issue, “A Synopsis of the History of Norwegian Tapestry – and Some Thoughts about Tapestry Today,” by tapestry artist Unn Sønju.  Unn was delightful to work with, and she supplied the English translation.  I asked about her own influences for a bio, and that turned into a separate article featuring her amazing work.  Thank you, Unn.

In March I really wished I could hop over to Norway to take a course in Icelandic Glit, a weaving technique on the warp-weighted loom.  That didn’t work, but I managed the second-best option, getting a wonderful article about the class and technique from Hildur Hakonardottir. Thank you, Hildur. For added interest, there are comments from three students in the class. Thank you, Marta Kløve Juul, Monika Ravnanger, and Randi Anderson.

Appropriately enough, this issues finishes with a review of the fabulous new book, The Warp-Weighted Loom, by Hildur Hákonardóttir, Elizabeth Johnston, Marta Kløve Juul. Thank you, Wendy Sundquist.


If you can make it to Minneapolis between July 20 and September 10 this year, you won’t want to miss this exhibit at Norway House.  Here is the first blast of information we are sharing; watch for more in the future.  Plus, the exhibit will be well-covered in a future issue of the Norwegian Textile Letter.

Traditional Norwegian Weaving: American Reboot
An Exhibit at Norway House: July 20-September 10, 2017
Sponsored by Norway House and the Weavers Guild of Minnesota


This 19th century “boat rya,” a treasure of the Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum, will hang next to several contemporary rya weavings.

Make Minneapolis your destination thus summer for an exhibit joining Norwegian weaving past and present. Inspired by historical textiles, American weavers have used Norwegian weaving techniques to create a new body of work, contemporary in design or materials. Enjoy traditional pieces from the collection of the Vesterheim Norwegian American Museum and outstanding weavings from recent decades that honor the past and break through with modern expression.

The exhibit of invited pieces (40 in all) is based around several techniques, including rya; tapestry; krokbragd and other boundweave variants; band weaving; and overshot weaves such as monks belt and skilbragd.  Other pieces are chosen to illustrate where American weavers learned their skills in Norwegian techniques, and where weaving in the Norwegian tradition has been exhibited over the years.

Related events include lectures and classes and weaving demonstrations.  A loom will be set up in the gallery where members of the Scandinavian Weavers Study Group will weave a rutevev (square weave) runner.

  • Opening celebration: Thursday, July 20, 2017, 5-8 pm.
  • Gallery talks: Sundays and July 23, August 13, 2 pm.
  • Weaving demonstrations: Wednesdays and Sundays from July 23-September 17, 12 pm-3 pm
  • Afternoon with an Expert, featuring Laurann Gilbertson, Curator, Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum: Saturday, September 9, 1-3:30 pm.  Following the lecture, “Warmth and Color: Traditional Norwegian Coverlets,” Gilbertson will conduct an Antique ID clinic.  Members of the public are encouraged to bring Nordic textiles to learn more about their age, origin, and function (but no appraisals).
  • Classes: Sami-style Band Weaving, Mondays, August 14 and 21, 12-4 pm; Make a Viking Knit Bracelet, Monday, July 24, 10 am-2 pm; Cardboard Loom Weaving for Kids, Monday, August 7, 10 am – noon.

Information on the exhibit will be posted on the Norway House website soon. For now, sign up for Sami-style Band Weaving with Keith Pierce, or Make a Viking Knit Bracelet with Melba Granlund. Maybe you know a kid to sign up for the fun introduction to weaving. This is a special opportunity to see the weaving exhibit in depth, as these Weavers Guild classes will be held at Norway House, right in the main gallery.

Also, follow the Scandinavian Weavers Study Group blog in the coming weeks to read about many of the individual pieces.

This 19th century “boat rya,” a treasure of the Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum, will hang next to several contemporary rya weavings.

Annual Exhibition of Folk Art in the Norwegian Tradition

IMG_2892The other premier destination for seeing Norwegian weaving this summer is the “Annual Exhibition of Folk Art in the Norwegian Tradition,” on view at the Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum in Deborah, Iowa, from June 8-July 17, 2017. This is a wonderful venue to see weaving, as the pieces are interspersed in the gallery with rosemaling, woodcarving, and knife carving–a rich way to view folk art-inspired pieces in context.

To tempt you, here is a detail shot from a beautiful sjonbragd weaving by Jan Mostrom.  I saw it just off the loom, ready for finishing and sending down for the exhibit.

Continuing Support 

As a vennlig reminder, you can support the publication of the Norwegian Textile Letter via a handy Paypal link on the main page of the newsletter.  Your support is very much appreciated!

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Robbie LaFleur
Editor and Publisher

Weaving Glit on the Upright Loom

By Hildur Hakonardottir

Hildur Hakonardottir delivers an introductory lecture on glit.

Hildur Hakonardottir delivers an introductory lecture on glit.

For the workshop held at the Osterøy Museum on March 10-11, 2017, museum workers Marta Kløve Juuhl and Monika Ravnanger set up 10 warps, 20 cm wide with 120 threads each, on five warp-weighted looms from the museum’s fine collection, hewn in their own workshop. That makes 1200 threads in all and they tied the heddles for a tabby ground. Only one shaft is needed, the other shed is naturally open in resting position.

The two students sharing a loom must work in unison. It takes patience to work that way, often having to wait and adapt to the thoughts, understanding, and movements of another person. Two people sharing a loom have to move the shafts to and fro at the same time as well as putting in weft and pattern threads. I say shafts because when the students had mastered the loom and woven a bit of plain weave they added another shaft for the glit and had to learn to tie the 20 extra heddles needed for the extra shaft. They pick up and tie a heddle for every sixth thread chosen from the back threads. Those serve as guide lines when you lay in the colours for the pattern.


We were going to learn to weave glit as it was done in Iceland from way back in the Middle Ages. We have many examples of fine saddlecloths from the nineteenth century. The method comes from the upright loom and when it was adapted to the flat loom the squares became all uniform and the glit patterns lost some of their variety and liveliness. But somehow the old method lived on in Iceland.


This method is a bit difficult to describe because the glit or pattern squares all have the same shape and value when you look at them on paper, but when weaving the value changes and is sometimes a bit unpredictable. It is like building a wall of stones or turf. The outside stones or layers of turf must be the strongest, but what is inside is more a filling and may be smaller stones or not so perfectly cut turf. You should therefore use 6 threads for the outermost squares but only 5 threads for the inner ones and those squares that stand all alone and without support use 7 threads. What is more, when you lay in the pattern threads from left to right, the way you write, you go forth proud like you are going out dancing in your best dress and you pass over both the outside laying guiding threads from the back – but then something happens and you discover a spot on your dress and you turn around and sneak back home to change. Then you want to forget the incident and take the ground weft thread and go from left to right just as if you were saying, “Now we draw a line here and forget and start over again.” This we repeat three times and in the end the last pattern thread goes over the warp guiding thread instead of under as when you turn and we leave it hanging on the back for further use. This is to form the square better, just as if you are slamming a door behind you.


Sample pieces woven by Hildur Hakonardottir

You also are supposed to work in a 1-1-2-3 rhythm.

One round, or one square in the pattern:

Always begin from a resting position and open natural shed.

1-1. laying in pattern from a basic position forth and back.
2. lay in the ground weft thread from left to right
3. lay in the ground weft thread from right to left

Repeat 3 times (or 4) until a square is formed. Makes one square.

It seemed difficult but in the end all got it and beautiful things began to be born on the loom.

We have written about glit in our new book, The Warp Weighted Loom, published by Skald forlag in Bergen with the support of Museumssenteret i Hordaland ((Muho).

Hildur Hakonardottir

Postscript: Marta Kløve Juuhl and Monika Ravnanger, staff members at the Osterøy Museum, added a few of their thoughts about the technique:

Hildur’s first question was, “Why are the old patterns more lively than newer ones?” Our experience in the class showed us the freedom to make adjustments and pattern choices on the warp-weighted loom was important.

Glit resembles monksbelt (tavlebragd in Norwegian, munkabelte in Swedish), and a little like dukagang also, but as with many coverlet techniques, there is a big difference between the pattern on paper and the product on the loom.

You always weave in two background shots and then two pattern shots.  You have a pattern shaft that raises every sixth thread. That is the starting point. But the rules are quite free, in that sometimes the pattern square can go over seven threads, and sometimes 6 or 5.  You must decide which pattern square should dominate. If a pattern square stands apart, it should always go over 7 threads, because it turns on the thread that is on the pattern shaft. On the outer edges the pattern squares also go over 7 threads. But when two colors meet within the pattern, you must decide which color should dominate.  It’s almost like drawing with thread.

The problem with using a floor loom is that when you tie up every sixth thread on the pattern shaft, it is very uniform, and you don’t think about how you can use the technique in a more freeform way. That is what they certainly did in Iceland, as long at the large coverlets in glit technique were woven on warp-weighted looms. But the floor loom in a way ties the pattern threads evenly, so the pattern becomes more square.

Monika and Marta agreed that the most important thing they learned about glit is that the old glit coverlets have a unique aesthetic, one that is impossible to merely plan on graph paper.

For the glit-weaving course, Marta had to find weights in a hurry. They had tons of stone weights at the museum, but they all weighed around 1 kilo, too heavy for the thin warp they used (Hillesvåg Alv, kamgarn 13/2).  So they improvised with soda bottles filled with 4 deciliters of water, one for each 12 warp threads, about 100 grams per three threads.


When they ran out of bottles, they used plastic bags with about 400 grams of sand in each, clothed in black socks.  “It worked,” Marta commented.


Postscript: Randi Anderson,  co-editor of The Warp-Weighted Loom and a former instructor at Osterøy Museum, attended the class and added these comments.

Hildur Hákonardottir accomplished a ground-breaking task in translating the interview notes of Skùli Magnusson from the 1700s to understandable instructions to include in our new book. It was especially difficult to break the code with Glit, which she managed after experiments and discussion with Marta Kløve Juuhl in the spring of 2016. Glit now stands for something nearly magical, something that was difficult even for serious weavers.

So it was good that there was a course with Hildur as the instructor at the Osterøy museum. I was so lucky to attend, and I learned it was an experiment–to win back a method of weaving a pattern on the warp-weighted loom, one that had shifted to the floor loom and become quite popular in Iceland.

Hildur was an excellent instructor.  She gave practical help and helped to show what would happen while you wove. Her excellent judgment showed that theory and practice can differ, and the weaving can vary from the pattern. Thank you for the course; it was a magical experience.

Book Review: The Warp-Weighted Loom

book-coverThe Warp-Weighted Loom, by Hildur Hákonardóttir, Elizabeth Johnston, Marta Kløve Juuhl, Edited by Randi Andersen and Atle Ove Martinussen

(This book can be purchased through the bookstore of the Vesterheim Norwegian-American Museum.)

By Wendy Sundquist

I love books that turn out to be more than what you originally expected them to be.  The Warp-Weighted Loom is one of those books.  Over the years I have seen exquisitely fine fabric that Elizabeth Johnston has woven on the standing loom at Old Scatness in Shetland.  I was able to handle the vararfeldur that Marta Kløve Juulh had in her possession on the Vesterheim Textile Tour in 2011.  It was remarkably soft and lightweight, fitting into a cloth shopping bag.  After these experiences, I was really looking forward to this new book.

This interdisciplinary book is a product of the main three authors’ research and weaving in collaboration with the Osterøy Museum and The Museum Center in Hordaland and others. It serves in part as a way to transfer and preserve the skills and knowledge within this traditional craft, which are truly our intangible cultural heritage.

book-spineThe Warp-Weighted Loom is bound in a manner that is reminiscent of a bound book from the Middle Ages, with thick cardboard covers and no spine.  The section-sewn binding makes this book incredibly accessible for reading and as a tool for instruction at the loom.

The book is written primarily in English and is divided into 3 sections.  Part 1 is an introduction to the 1000 year history of the warp-weighted loom told by Hákonardóttir, Johnston and Kløve Juuhl from their individual country’s perspectives of Iceland, Shetland and Norway.  Part 2 is a practical handbook that includes how to make, operate and weave on a standing loom.  This section includes detailed photos, and step-by-step instructions that are written in English, Icelandic and Norwegian.  It also covers some of the textiles traditionally produced on these looms, how to reproduce them, and an overview of spinning.  Part 3 is dedicated to research on a broad range of topics by several different authors.  Topics include The Loom in the Grave, Icelandic Textiles, Finishing Cloth in the Sea, Taatit Rugs, Weaving in the Dark, Safeguarding an Intangible Cultural Heritage and more.

The Warp-Weighted Loom is a remarkable book on so many levels.  It undertakes the preservation of women’s history as it relates to weaving and wadmal production within the North Atlantic cultural heritage.  But more importantly, it recognizes and addresses that the “knowledge of old crafts will be lost, if not maintained; the only way to do so is to conserve them, promote them and teach them.” (Sigridur Sigurdardottir p. 267)

This book is a must have for any serious weaver or student of Nordic textiles.  It is a joy!

Wendy Sundquist is a knitter, spinner, natural dyer, and weaver with a life-long passion for Scandinavian textiles.  She currently shepherds a geriatric flock of Shetland sheep on Whidbey Island in Washington state.

A Synopsis of the History of Norwegian Tapestry – and Some Thoughts about Tapestry Today

Editor’s note:  The text of this article, by noted artist Unn Sønju, first appeared in a special issue of the Norwegian magazine, Lokalhistorisk magasin (Local History Magazine).  The special double issue, 1-2, 2016, was devoted to articles on the theme of “Kunst og Husflid” (“Art and Handcraft”).

By Unn Sønju

Any weave is the interaction between the masculine warp and the feminine weft that create a cross, an ancient symbol for creation. Tapestry is one of the oldest art forms know to man. Unlike other two-dimensional art forms it has the unique property of having the image on both sides of the material. Only the simplest tools are required to weave on short or long lengths of warp.

 The Oseberg tapestry fragments

Norway is fortunate in having tapestries from different periods in its history. Through these we can learn a great deal of social and art history, and last but not least, women’s history. The oldest pictorial weaves were found in the Oseberg Viking ship, buried around 850 and excavated in 1904, near Tønsberg in Vestfold. About this find, Bjørn Hougen wrote in 1940, “Tapestry and woodcarving, in these two words lies the starting point for an entirely new perspective that the Oseberg ship has given to the art history of the Viking Age.”

Oseberg fragment, Universitets Oldsaksamling, Oslo

Oseberg fragment, Universitets Oldsaksamling, Oslo

From the first, the woodcarvings were treated with great respect, while the tapestry fragments received shamefully poor treatment. The tapestry fragments were in poor condition, appearing almost black and encased in clay and feathers, pressed together into lumps. During restoration it appeared that they were between 16 and 32 centimetres in height and thought to have been hung as long strips.

As early as 1916 four volumes of all the Oseberg finds were planned. Three volumes of all the finds, excluding the textiles, came in quick succession; the fourth on textiles took nearly 100 years before it was published in 2006. However in 1992, The Oseberg Queen’s Grave: Our national Treasure in a New Light (Osebergdronningens grav-vår nasjonal skatt i nytt lys) was published. Anne Stina Ingstad wrote that the textiles found in the burial chamber of the Oseberg ship are “without comparison in Nordic pre-history.” She points out that the tapestry fragments are by far the most important examples of the collection. With such a history isn’t it strange that these tapestries have been so overlooked and exhibited so infrequently?

Baldisol Tapestry


Baldishol Tapestry. Image from Wikipedia:

The next outstanding work is the Baldisol tapestry from circa 1200. After the demolition of the Baldisol church in 1887 an auction of the contents of the old church was held. An observant woman bought a dirty roll of textiles that she soon found were something extraordinarily special. With utmost care she washed the textiles, revealing images of two calendar months: May representing a man in a long smock sowing seed, and April as a young warrior in full armour riding a virile stallion. Both are depicted in an archway with a decorative background of birds and spots. The tapestry is torn at either end, indicating it could be part of a larger work, perhaps the whole calendar year. In all likelihood it was a long frieze, a beautiful tapestry in the Romanesque style. What is it that is so amazingly enchanting about the Baldisol tapestry? Its strength and clarity of colour and the total wholeness of its drawing and composition gives us a compelling image. With some knowledge of Romanesque art we can imagine how the other months might have been depicted. If we imagine a tapestry of twelve months length it may have been woven for Hamar Cathedral that was completed around 1200.

The Middle Ages

Adoration of the Magi, signed M.I.D & A.H.D, Gudbrandsdal

“Adoration of the Magi,” signed M.I.D & A.H.D, Gudbrandsdal

Between the Baldisol tapestry and 1550 there exists no evidence of Norwegian tapestries. This was a period of great hardship with 60% of the population dying of the plague, resulting in the collapse of society.

It was in the Middle Ages that many of Europe’s finest tapestries were created. Only long after this great interest for tapestry had reached is zenith there, did it eventually come to Norway, where the golden age of tapestry occurred between 1550 and 1850.

Norway had neither a tradition nor interest for painting and sculpture as in other countries in Europe, but tapestry flowered! Interest and knowledge of tapestry came first to the coastal towns and gradually spread to the rest of the country. In the eastern districts around Kristiania (now Oslo) figurative motifs were common, many from bible stories. On the west coast of Norway tapestry developed abstract and geometric imagery, while north from Trondheim ‘rya’, a tufted weave, was common that was well suited for bedspreads at home and on their fishing vessels. The Sami people had their own ‘grenvev’, literally ‘branch weave’ or weaving over a tree branch, making dynamic striped black and white tapestries.

Because Norway was a poor land that had neither a royal court nor aristocracy, women were given the opportunity to weave in small workshops. In the great tapestry workshops in Europe women were not invited to weave but could spin, tie loose threads and sweep the floors. In Norway it was an opposite situation. It was women who were the weavers, which led to a charming difference as their tapestries became more and more removed from their original prototypes. These female weavers created tapestries where women were the central motif, often derived from biblical sources.

An abstracted version of the Wise and Foolish Virgins woven by an unknown woman in Western Norway between 1750 and 1800.

An abstracted version of the Wise and Foolish Virgins woven by an unknown woman in Western Norway between 1750 and 1800.

New Flowering for Norwegian Tapestry

After 1850 tapestries were seen as being old fashioned and uninteresting as painting and sculpture became the leading art forms. At the end of the century there was a growing interest in Norwegian nationalism and folk culture renewing interest in the old tapestries. These tapestries were exhibited in museums and galleries at home and abroad and this encouraged a new interest in weaving and tapestry. Weavers who previously were anonymous were now known by their own name and were recognised in society as artists. Frida Hansen was the first who received international recognition, followed by Hannah Ryggen, Synnøve Anker Aurdal, Jan Groth and an increasing number of tapestry artists since the 1970s.

Hannah Ryggen. "Vi Lever på en Stjerne." ("We Live on a Star")

Hannah Ryggen. “Vi Lever på en Stjerne.” (“We Live on a Star”)

Today there are a large number of artists who have chosen tapestry as their prime form of expression. Tapestry is a natural part of the Norwegian and international art scene that becomes continually broader in its scope of media and expression due to education and advances in technology. Today a tapestry can be totally realised from idea to finished product by the use of data programming. A fine example of this is the theatre curtain designed by Pae White in the Opera House in Oslo. Today tapestries are to be found in many public buildings the world over, as indeed are books, showing the work of outstanding tapestry artists. Large group and travelling exhibitions bring to the public the latest ideas and developments in tapestry art. In Norway in the 1960-70s tapestry was much sought after and now, in the past few years, there is renewed and exciting interest.

To renew an old craft is both a challenge and a responsibility. If tapestry no longer mirrors and reflects its contemporary society it soon loses any interest and quickly becomes neglected and indifferent. Tapestry, like all visual art, can be divided into three stages: idea, craft and form/presentation that must work together for a convincing totality. The idea is the springboard and energy, through craft and technique the idea becomes an object, and the form is the final presentation.

Thread on thread, patience and concentration, such is the artist’s wonder and experience in the creation of a tapestry.

Translation of the original article from Lokalhistorisk magasin was provided by the author, Unn Sønju.
Unn Sønju was born in 1938 in Oslo, Norway; she currently lives and works in Oslo and Flesberg, Norway. She was educated at Leeds College of Art, England (1957-59) and the Women’s Industrial School, Norway (1960-62). She was a lecturer in Experimental Textiles in the Department of Fine Art in Leeds from 1965-77, and Tapestry Professor at Oslo University College from 1999-2005. She has been featured in 32 solo exhibitions in Scandinavian and Great Britain, and participated in over 100 group exhibitions worldwide. 39 of her tapestries appear in public spaces.
Learn more about the author’s work in tapestry in another article in this issue:, “Influences in my Art: Reflections,” and at her website,

Influences in my Art: Reflections

By Unn Sonju

Oseberg fragment, Universitets Oldsaksamling, Oslo

Oseberg fragment, Universitets Oldsaksamling, Oslo

The tapestry fragments from Oseberg have always been of central interest to my work. They are both mysterious and revealing. The early Vikings wove long, narrow lengths depicting events that were important in their lives. The technique is so antiquated and complicated, the threads being so thin and closely woven that I doubt if anyone could hand weave so finely today. These tapestries are thought to have  decorated the walls in the Viking long houses. Thinking about these tapestries it suddenly occurred to me that weaving long lengths is fundamental to the loom.

This discovery encouraged me to make long, narrow tapestries depicting events central to my life, some being 15 to 20 metres long.

"Running Hare," 1993

“Running Hare,” 1993

baldisholThe Baldishol tapestry is woven in a technique very similar to the way I weave today. The images are bold and clear, one depicting Man and Nature the other Man the Warrior. So much of my work is either gleaned directly from nature or is an outcry against man’s warring violence and destruction.


Unn Sønju, "Blood cannot be washed out with blood," 2010. Wool on wool warp, 280 x 250 cm.

Unn Sønju, “Blood cannot be washed out with blood,” 2010. Wool on wool warp, 280 x 250 cm.

My first art education was at Leeds College of Art, England. There I found myself at the centre of an art educational revolution where the emphasis was on an analysis of the constituent parts of art rather than the academic tradition. Here the idea was placed above craft and technique, innovation and imaginative leaps encouraged. It was unconventional thinking about the nature and creation of art that has patterned my thinking, teaching, ideas and actions to the present day.

"Aroma of Marshland," 2017

“Aroma of Marshland,” 2017

After Leeds, by chance I heard on the Norwegian radio a woman speaking about ‘piss blue’, her beloved indigo dye. This was the voice of Hannah Ryggen, an outstanding artist and tapestry weaver. I didn’t know of her, or her art. It was the passion she conveyed in telling about the trials and tribulations suffered in order to make her own ‘indigo blue’ that spurred me on to learn tapestry. In order to do this I enrolled in a course in tapestry at Den Kvinnelige Industriskole (The Womens Industrial School) in Oslo. In contrast to Leeds, here the emphasis was entirely on craft and technique and only the Norwegian tapestry tradition.

The early 60’s found me engaged fulltime with tapestry yet it would take almost 20 years before I really discovered the unique plastic qualities of tapestry. The ‘Eureka’ moment came when I understood that tapestry had two sides! The image was on both sides of the material, one image being the mirror of the other! This opened up a horizon of possibilities in both 2 and 3 dimensions. I found that the tapestry material could be twisted, knotted, turned and could move in any direction, the aim being always to clarify my fundamental visual idea.

"The Sea is Waving," 1989

“The Sea is Waving,” 1989

Unn Sønju, May 17, 2017
Unn Sønju was born in 1938 in Oslo, Norway; she currently lives and works in Oslo and Flesberg, Norway. She was educated at Leeds College of Art, England (1957-59) and the Women’s Industrial School, Norway (1960-62). She was a lecturer in Experimental Textiles in the Department of Fine Art in Leeds from 1965-77, and Tapestry Professor at Oslo University College from 1999-2005. She has been featured in 32 solo exhibitions in Scandinavian and Great Britain, and participated in over 100 group exhibitions worldwide. 39 of her tapestries appear in public spaces.
Enjoy these additional tapestries included below, and learn more about the author’s work at her website,
"Unopened Letter," 1981

“Unopened Letter,” 1981

"Sky Pockets," 1996

“Sky Pockets,” 1996

Guantanamo-2009-73x104cm copy

“Guantanamo,” 2009

"Greenhouse," 2007

“Greenhouse,” 2007

"Bathers," 1975

“Bathers,” 1975